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- Operations and Algebraic Thinking

**Kindergarten Math Domain: Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

In this domain, Kindergarten students will build on the skills and concepts introduced in the standards-aligned Counting and Cardinality domain. Now that they’re armed with a comprehensive understanding of counting objects, students will be introduced to addition and subtraction and working with larger numbers. eSpark Learning provides engaging, fun, and standards-aligned activities to help students and teachers succeed in the classroom. Here’s a closer look at each Common Core standard within this domain:

**Use Pictures to Add and Subtract**

In this first standard, students will be introduced to addition and subtraction in a fun and visual way — using things like objects, fingers, sounds, expressions, and equations to better grasp this new and exciting concept.

**Let's Add and Subtract**

Students will begin adding and subtracting numbers 1 through 10. They will solve word problems using drawings and objects.

**Make Bigger Numbers**

Next, students will use their newfound knowledge of addition and subtraction to understand that different pairs of numbers can equal the same solution (e.g.: 2+3=5 and 1+4=5).

**Friends of Ten**

In this standard, Kindergarten students will begin to identify and pair numbers that equal 10.

Students will learn to add within 5.

**Subtract Within 5**

Finally, students will learn to subtract within 5.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking **is one of five domains included in the Kindergarten math standards. During this phase of learning, students can expect to grow and develop their skills in:

- Using visuals such as pictures, objects, and fingers to add and subtract
- Identify pairs of numbers between 1-10 that equal the same amount
- Identify pairs of numbers between 1-9 that equal 10
- Begin learning to add and subtract within 5.

With the help of eSpark Learning, Kindergarten students become more engaged and learn 1.5 faster than their peers. Through standards-aligned activities like fun games and interactive videos, students will sharpen their knowledge and skills while achieving goals set forth by the Common Core. For teachers, eSpark Learning tracks the progress of each student on an individual level, allowing them to provide more personalized learning where necessary.

Below are examples of how eSpark Learning resources are aligned to each Common Core standard within the Operations and Algebraic Thinking domain:

**Use Pictures to Add and Subtract**

Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

In this standard, students will tap into activities like instructional videos, learning songs, and several interactive games to help them solve equations through addition and subtraction.

**Let's Add and Subtract**

Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

Through fun and engaging games like Maxwell the Monster, students will solve addition and subtraction equations by feeding Maxwell various foods and snacks.

**Make Bigger Numbers**

Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

One of the many activities within this standard features Curious George, who is playing with his train sets and needs help moving cars onto the track. Through this, students will begin to understand the concept that two numbers can create a larger or small number.

**Friends of Ten**

For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a picture or equation.

Through several practice lessons and games like Tiana’s Tens, students will pair objects and numbers together to create the number 10.

During this standard, students and teachers will tap into engaging instructional videos, practice drills, and a fun Downhill Derby game to begin learning how to add within 5.

**Subtract Within 5**

Practice makes perfect! Students will expand their knowledge and practice repetition of solving subtraction equations.

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